In the world of relics, most are highly questionable.Some are outright ridiculous, such as The Most Holy Umbilical Cord.Mc Crone's theory is that "a male model was daubed with paint and wrapped in the sheet to create the shadowy figure of Jesus." The model was covered in red ochre, "a pigment found in earth and widely used in Italy during the Middle Ages, and pressed his forehead, cheekbones and other parts of his head and body on to the linen to create the image that exists today.Vermilion paint, made from mercuric sulphide, was then splashed onto the image's wrists, feet and body to represent blood." Mc Crone analyzed the shroud and found traces of chemicals that were used in "two common artist's pigments of the 14th century, red ochre and vermilion, with a collagen (gelatin) tempera binder" (Mc Crone 1998).Skeptics believe that the shroud of Turin is just another religious relic invented to beef up the pilgrimage business or impress infidels.(Another equally famous painting, also claimed to have miraculously appeared on a cloth, cropped up in Mexico in the 16th century, "Our Lady of Guadalupe.") The case for the forged shroud is made most forcefully by Joe Nickell in his Inquest On The Shroud Of Turin, which was written in collaboration with a panel of scientific and technical experts.The cloth is mentioned to have been in the tomb in John 20:6-7 described as a cloth separate from the shroud. In 614, just before the Sasanian King of Persia Khusru II conquered Jerusalem, the cloth was taken to Alexandria, and within just a few years made its way to Spain through North Africa. Unlike most relics, which tend to be medieval forgeries, the Sudarium is much different in both its clear provenance and history, and the fact that it really isn't all that impressive to look at.It has no miraculous images, its not a spear or a nail, or a crown of thorns.
This illustrates death by asphyxiation while bleeding, consistent with crucifixion, which tends to suffocate the victim rather than cause death from blood loss.The stains are superimposed on top of one another, suggesting that some of the stains were at least partly dried when the body was moved again causing new fluid to deposit.The folds of the Sudarium suggest that the cloth was put in place while the body was in an upright position, perhaps still on the cross.He makes his complete case that the shroud is a medieval painting in Judgment Day for the Shroud of Turin (March 1999).For his work, Mc Crone was awarded the American Chemical Society's Award in Analytical Chemistry in 2000.