Large earthquakes in unprepared regions can cause widespread chaos, destruction, and death. Describe disasters associated with earthquakes and tsunamis.8. Deformation is the action or process of changing in shape or distorting, especially through the application of pressure.Earthquakes are associated with faults, but not all faults currently generate earthquakes (they may have been active long ago). Define phenomena associated with earthquakes and earthquake faults. Describe landscape features associated with faults. In geologic terms, deformation refers to changes in the Earth's crust related to tectonic activity, particularly folding and faulting.It also includes information about earthquakes, earthquake prediction, and earthquake preparedness. Explain causes of deformation in the Earth's crust. Motion within the mantle is responsible for deep crustal stretching (extension) and compression.Motion in the mantle is produced by heat convection—hot rocks expand and rise whereas cooler (hence denser) rocks sink.Fault systems are often associated with volcanic regions. These motions exert great forces, strong enough to rip continents apart, but the rate of movement is extremely slow on an anual basis.
On land erosion strips away material over time, and the crust rises.
Tectonic forces within the Earth deform rocks through processes of folding and faulting, producing many of the landscape features observable around us. The lithosphere floats upon the semi-fluid asthenosphere below.
This chapter focuses of the examination of faults, their geometry, and how they appear on the natural landscape. For example, If a section of lithosphere is loaded, as by ice, it will slowly subside to a new equilibrium position; if a section of lithosphere is reduced in mass, as by erosion, it will slowly rise to a new equilibrium position (Figure 6-3).
Folding is the bending or warping of stratified rocks by tectonic forces (movements in the Earth's crust).
Examples of types of folds include: (Figure 6-5) anticline—a fold in layers of rock where the concave side faces down, with strata sloping downward on both sides from a common crest.