Blood banks began to screen the USA blood supply.28 In April, the U. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the World Health Organization (WHO) hosted the first International AIDS Conference in Atlanta Georgia.29 Ryan White, a teenager from Indiana, USA who acquired AIDS through contaminated blood products used to treat his haemophilia was banned from school.30 On 2 October, the actor Rock Hudson dies from AIDS - the first high profile fatality.
He left 0,000 to set up the American Foundation for AIDS Research (amf AR).31 In December, the U. Public Health Service issued the first recommendations for preventing mother to child transmission of the virus.32 By the end of 1985, every region in the world had reported at least one case of AIDS, with 20,303 cases in total.33 In May 1986, the International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses said that the virus that causes AIDS will officially be called HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) instead of HTLV-III/LAV.34 By the end of the year, 85 countries had reported 38,401 cases of AIDS to the World Health Organization.
Up until the 1980s, we do not know how many people were infected with HIV or developed AIDS.
HIV was unknown and transmission was not accompanied by noticeable signs or symptoms.
In November, the World Trade Organization (WTO) announced the Doha Declaration which allowed developing countries to manufacture generic medications to combat public health crises like HIV.74 In April 2002, the Global Fund approved its first round of grants totalling 0 million.75 In July, UNAIDS reported that AIDS was now by far the leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa.76 Also in July, South Africa’s Constitutional Court orders the government to make the HIV drug nevirapine available to all HIV-positive pregnant women and their newborn children following a legal challenge by the Treatment Action Campaign.
77 In November, the FDA approved the first rapid HIV test with 99.6% accuracy and a result in 20 minutes.78 In January 2003, President George W.
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KEY POINTS: The history of the HIV and AIDS epidemic began in illness, fear and death as the world faced a new and unknown virus.However, scientific advances, such as the development of antiretroviral drugs, have enabled people with access to treatment to live long and healthy lives with HIV.Here, we go through the key historical moments that have defined the HIV epidemic over the past 30 years.In this period, between 100,000 and 300,000 people could have already been infected.1 In 1981, cases of a rare lung infection called .3 In December 1981, the first cases of PCP were reported in people who inject drugs.4 By the end of the year, there were 270 reported cases of severe immune deficiency among gay men - 121 of them had died.5 In June 1982, a group of cases among gay men in Southern California suggested that the cause of the immune deficiency was sexual and the syndrome was initially called gay-related immune deficiency (or GRID).6 Later that month, the disease was reported in haemophiliacs and Haitians leading many to believe it had originated in Haiti.7 8 In September, the CDC used the term 'AIDS' (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) for the first time, describing it as a disease at least moderately predictive of a defect in cell mediated immunity, occurring in a person with no known case for diminished resistance to that disease.9 AIDS cases were also being reported in a number of European countries.10 11 12 In Uganda, doctors reported cases of a new, fatal wasting disease locally known as 'slim'.13 By this point, a number of AIDS-specific organisations had been set up including the San Francisco AIDS Foundation (SFAF) in the USA and the Terrence Higgins Trust in the UK.14 In January 1983, AIDS was reported among the female partners of men who had the disease suggesting it could be passed on via heterosexual sex.15 In May, doctors at the Pasteur Institute in France reported the discovery of a new retrovirus called Lymphadenopathy-Associated Virus (or LAV) that could be the cause of AIDS.16 In June, the first reports of AIDS in children hinted that it could be passed via casual contact but this was later ruled out and it was concluded that they had probably directly acquired AIDS from their mothers before, during or shortly after birth.17 By September, the CDC identified all major routes of transmission and ruled out transmission by casual contact, food, water, air or surfaces.18 The CDC also published their first set of recommended precautions for healthcare workers and allied health professionals to prevent "AIDS transmission".19 In November, the World Health Organization (WHO) held its first meeting to assess the global AIDS situation and began international surveillance.20 By the end of the year the number of AIDS cases in the USA had risen to 3,064 - of this number, 1,292 had died.21 In April 1984, the National Cancer Institute announced they had found the cause of AIDS, the retrovirus HTLV-III.In a joint conference with the Pasteur Institute they announced that LAV and HTLV-III are identical and the likely cause of AIDS.22 A blood test was created to screen for the virus with the hope that a vaccine would be developed in two years.23 In July, the CDC state that avoiding injecting drug use and sharing needles "should also be effective in preventing transmission of the virus."24 In October, bath houses and private sex clubs in San Francisco were closed due to high-risk sexual activity.