When the medicine of , who designed one of the earliest pyramids, the Step Pyramid at Ṣaqqārah, and who was later regarded as the Egyptian god of medicine and identified with the Greek god Asclepius.Surer knowledge comes from the study of Egyptian papyri, especially the Edwin Smith papyrus discovered in the 19th century.Common maladies, such as colds or constipation, were accepted as part of existence and dealt with by means of such herbal remedies as were available.
The treatment then applied was to lure the errant soul back to its proper habitat within the body or to extract the evil intruder, be it dart or demon, by counterspells, incantations, potions, suction, or other means.
Divination, from the inspection of the liver of a sacrificed animal, was widely practiced to foretell the course of a disease.
Little else is known regarding Babylonian medicine, and the name of not a single physician has survived.
The clues to early knowledge are few, consisting only of clay tablets bearing cuneiform signs and seals that were used by physicians of ancient .
This code includes laws relating to the practice of medicine, and the penalties for failure were severe.