Archaeological discoveries at the Sanxingdui and Jinsha sites have established that the area surrounding Chengdu was inhabited over four thousand years ago.At the time of China's Xia, Shang, and Zhou dynasties, it represented a separate ancient bronze-wielding culture which—following its partial sinification—became known to the Chinese as Shu.As of 2014, the administrative area houses 14,427,500 inhabitants, with an urban population of 10,152,632.At the time of the 2010 census, Chengdu was the 5th-most populous agglomeration in China, with 10,484,996 inhabitants in the built-up area including Xinjin County and Deyang's Guanghan City.Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport, a hub of Air China and Sichuan Airlines is one of the 30 busiest airports in the world, and Chengdu Railway Station is one of the six biggest in China.Chengdu also hosts many international companies and more than 12 consulates., jinguan) was established to oversee its quality and supply.After the fall of the Eastern Han, Liu Bei ruled Shu, the southwestern of the Three Kingdoms, from Chengdu.
The name Chengdu is attested in sources dating back to shortly after its founding.
Its King Mengchang beautified the city by ordering hibiscus to be planted upon the city walls.
The Song conquered the city in 965 and used it for the introduction of the first widely used paper money in the world.
During World War II, the capital city of China was forced to move inland from Nanjing to Wuhan in 1937 and from Wuhan to Chengdu, then from Chengdu to Chongqing in 1938, as the Kuomintang (KMT) government under Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek ultimately retreated to Sichuan to escape from the invading Japanese forces.
They brought with them into Sichuan business people, workers and academics, who founded many of the industries and cultural institutions which continue to make Chengdu an important cultural and commercial production center.